Background: Regular consumption of diets with increased protein or fibre intakes may benefit body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Lupin flour is a novel food ingredient high in protein and fibre. Objective: To investigate the effects of a lupin-enriched diet, during and following energy restriction, on body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight individuals. Design: Participants (n¼131) were recruited to a 12-month parallel-design trial. They were randomly assigned to consume lupin-enriched foods or matching high-carbohydrate control foods. All participants underwent 3 months of weight loss, 1 month of weight stabilization and 8 months of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed at baseline, 4 and 12 months. Results: Lupin, relative to control, did not significantly influence (mean difference (95% CI)) weight loss at 4 months (0.1 kg ( 1.2, 1.4)) and 12 months ( 0.6 kg ( 2.0, 0.8)), maintenance of weight loss from 4 to 12 months ( 0.7 kg ( 1.83, 0.48)) or measures of body fat and fat-free mass. Relative to control, 24-h ambulatory systolic ( 1.3mmHg ( 2.4, 0.3), P¼0.016) and diastolic ( 1.0mmHg ( 1.9, 0.2), P¼0.021) blood pressures were lower at 12 months but not at 4 months; fasting insulin concentrations and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) scores were significantly lower at 4 months ( 1.2mUl–1 ( 1.3, 1.1), P¼0.004 and 0.6 units ( 1.0, 0.19), P¼0.004) and 12 months ( 1.3 mUl–1 ( 1.4, 1.1), Po0.001 and 0.7 units ( 1.1, 0.24), P¼0.002). Conclusions: A diet higher in protein and fibre derived from lupin-enriched foods does not enhance weight loss or improve the maintenance of weight loss. However, such a diet may provide cardiovascular health benefits in terms of insulin sensitivity and blood pressure.