Understanding how floodplain wetland vegetation is influenced by water regimes can inform the management of regulated river systems by targeting appropriate environmental water allocations. In this study, we examined plant community structure in 21 floodplain wetlands adjacent to the Murray River between Hume Reservoir and Tocumwal, south-eastern Australia. Correlations between the water regime of the previous 25 years, and wetland type were investigated. We found the structure of plant communities, as assessed by the richness and percentage cover of plants, to be related to water regime, with clear differences between the communities of wetlands with historical ‘Wet’, ‘Dry’ and ‘Intermediate’ water regimes. Plant community structure was also related to wetland type, with differences being found between the communities of floodplain depressions, flood-runners and cut-off meanders. Managers of riverine/floodplain ecosystems need to consider both wetland type and water regime when planning strategies for the restoration or conservation of floodplain wetland vegetation in regulated river systems.