1. Contrary to that for lakes and ponds, our knowledge of the influence of planktivorous fish on zooplankton communities in rivers is slight, largely because of the general assumption that such communities are overwhelmingly regulated by physical conditions. 2. In two separate but concurrent in situ enclosure experiments, we investigated the effects of carp gudgeon (Hypseleotris spp.) and Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki) on zooplankton communities in slackwaters of a temperate Australian floodplain river. 3. A high biomass of Hypseleotris suppressed the density of daphniid microcrustaceans, but enhanced the total density of rotifers. A high biomass of Gambusia, on the other hand, suppressed the total density of both microcrustaceans and rotifers. 4. A high biomass of planktivorous fish also reduced the density of many of the ovigerous (egg-carrying) zooplanktonic taxa. Indeed, ovigerous cyclopoid copepods were suppressed in the presence of a high biomass of Hypseleotris, even though there was no significant effect on overall (ovigerous plus non-ovigerous) density. 5. Our results imply that a high biomass of planktivorous fish can potentially influence zooplankton communities in riverine slackwaters, as in many lakes and ponds.